Guano - once the sole supply of N fertilizer in the U.S.
bat and bird dung.
nutrient content is variable Bat Sea Bird
The Chincha Islands in Peru became the number one place for
Bat Caves in Texas.
Island Act of 1856
animal byproduct, manure, plant residues, sewage sludge used
in specialty fertilizersfor lawns and shrubs
most of N released is converted to N in three weeks.
than a half percent of fertilizer sold in the U.S. today is
Nitrogen Fertilizer Production
The Haber Bosch process
Natural Gas Prices
A Minnesota plant will use wind power to produce ammonia
NH3 is a starting
point for making other N fertilizers. Natural gas is the
H+ source. N comes from the atmosphere.
Used as an applied fertilizer or as a building block for
other fertilizer products.
as a liquid under pressure or refrigerated; becomes
a gas when released and exposed to air.
directly to soil by injection
is lost to atmosphere during application.
minimize loss apply to a moist soil 6 to 7" deep.
drugs , propane
A solid nitrogen product typically applied in granular or
prilled form. It can be combined with ammonium nitrate and
dissolved in water to make liquid nitrogen fertilizer known
as urea ammonium nitrate or UAN solution.
Prill- to form pellet-sized crystals or agglomerates of material
by the action of upward-blowing air on falling hot solution;
used in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate and urea fertilizers.
Granules are particles produced by deposition of sucessive
layers on smaller particle from a liquid or slurry.
When applied to soil, urea-N hydrolyzes to ammonium N. Within
1 day after application, about 66% of urea-N is hydrolyzed,
and within 1 week all is hydrolyzed.. When not incorporated,
significant N loss by volatilization can occur.
hydrolysis to NH4+
to pervent volatilization
is an impurity that can reduce growth if it is present
in quantities more than 2%. Usually
a problem only in foliar feeding.
Ammonium Nitrate [NH4NO3]
A solid nitrogen product typically applied in granular
form is valued for its use on pasture lands and specialty
crops such as citrus.
-34.5 % N
to reduce caking
- Safety considerations Explosive
Nitrogen Solutions (non-pressure)
Typically, a combination of urea and ammonium nitrate dissolved
in water to form a highly soluble liquid fertilizer, typically
containing 28 or 32 percent nitrogen.
and or urea
and NH4NO3 dissolved in water called
Aqua ammonia - low pressure liquid must be injected 2-3"
deep. Ammonia gas dissolved in water (21% N)
N solutions are classed as pressure or non-pressure solutions.
sulfate 20.5% N
Made by reacting ammonia with sulfuric acid
It is also a byproduct of coke
ovens, where sulfuric acid is used to remove ammonia evolved
from the coal.
+ H2SO4 =====> (NH4)2SO4
handling and storage
ammonium phosphates - used primarily as a source of P
+ H3PO4 =====> NH4H2PO4
as MAP ..... 11-48-0
+ H3PO4 =====> NH4H2PO4
Diammonium phosphate a.k as DAP .... 18-46-0
potassium nitrate .... 13-0-44
+ 12 HNO3 ==> 6KNO3 + 3Cl2
+ 6NO2 + 6H20
mostly as a sidedressing
Slow release fertilizer materials (2)[more expensive] used
and shrubs, potted plants.
coated urea 37% N 17% S,
poly plus coated urea
Urea formaldehyde 38% N
IBDU - isobutylidene diurea 31%
semipermeable membrane NH4NO3 usual
source of N. History
Mag AMP 7-40-6 -- Particle size determines solubility.
6. Natural organic 1.5 - 8.5% N
cost -- no problem with burning -- long period of release.