. Any substance which has mass and occupies space. All physical objects are composed of matter in the form of atoms, which are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. It is the material of which the universe is composed and exists
in three forms: solids, liquids, gases.
Components of Matter
- A substance which cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means.
There are 118 elements now known that singly or in combination constitute
all matter and are described in the periodic
N, P, K, Au, Ag, H, O
For any element:
Number of Protons = Atomic Number
Number of Electrons = Number of Protons = Atomic Number
Number of Neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number
- Smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemical identity.3.
is a complex substance that can be decomposed by chemical methods
into simpler substances.
Molecule - A chemical
combination of two or more atoms which form a specific chemical
substance. To break up the molecule into its constituent atoms is
to change its character.
Carbon dioxide molecule CO2
Water molecule H2O
relative weight of one atom of an element compared with the
weight of one atom of carbon (12) or one atom of oxygen (16).
=16, H =1, N = 14, Au = 197
the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms of any one molecule
1+1+16 = 18
39+35 = 74
The atomic weight of an element divided by the valence it assumes
in a chemical compound.
weight divided by the valence= equivalent weight
equivalent weight of K = 39/1 = 39, Ca = 40/2 =20
An ion is an atom or group of atoms that have a net electric
loses an electron Na+
gains an electron Cl-
Cation - A positively charged atom or group of atoms
NH4+ , K+, Al+++, Ca++
Anion - A negatively charged atom or group of atoms
H2PO4- , HPO4=,
with the same charge repel while opposite charges attract.
Colloids - (clay and organic matter) are negatively charged;
therefore they attract cations.
such as NO- 3, SO=4,
and Cl- move freely in the soil. they are not retained
by soil colloids.
is a special case anion. It does not move freely in the soil
because it forms insoluble compounds with iron and aluminum
in acid soils and calcium in high pH soils.
C HOPKiNS CaFe Managed By Mine CuZins, Mo and Claude
C H O P K N S CaFe Mg B Mn CuZn Mo Cl